This report aims to explore the importance of biodiversity in the context of European forests and to make suggestions on how this biodiversity can be effectively maintained and enhanced through protection, management and restoration. The report is meant for all kinds of decision-makers at the EU, national and local levels who are confronted with policy and management decisions related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable forest management. Although the primary focus is on the EU, most of the insights and recommendations made should be transferrable, with varying degrees of customisation where necessary, to non-EU countries as well. This report does not and cannot provide black and white guidelines on how to support forest biodiversity, rather it is designed to be a reference source for information and inspiration on the basics of forest biodiversity and forest biodiversity management. As such, it is a useful tool that highlights what is possible for evidence-based decision-making on this complex and dynamic matter. The report is purposely written and presented in a manner to stimulate dialogue on maintaining and restoring forest biodiversity while illuminating ways to bridge gaps between divergent viewpoints on the available options to avoid the loss of the irreplaceable and invaluable natural and cultural heritage inherent to European forest biodiversity.