Broadly speaking, nature-based solutions refer to “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits.” There is significant and growing interest in the role nature-based solutions can play in a net-zero and climate-resilient society. This trend is illustrated by the development of an IUCN Global Standard on nature-based solutions2 and the development of guidelines by the Nature-Based Solutions Initiative3. The rising interest in nature-based solutions is also matched by concomitant interest in a ‘green economy,’ an economy that improves human wellbeing and builds a more equal society whilst reducing environmental risks and scarcities. This briefing explores the ways in which nature-based solutions may contribute to a green economy, and also identifies some of the challenges and contestations when it comes to enacting a green economy through nature-based approaches. The briefing is based on a series of web-based workshops convened by the British Academy over summer and autumn 2021, which brought together researchers, policy stakeholders and third sector organisations to discuss the place of nature-based solutions in a future society across different geographical regions of the world. Where possible, the briefing builds on – and draws in examples from – contributions made in the workshops.